- A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided via "alt" (alternative text attribute), "longdesc" (long description tag), or in element content.
- Web pages shall be designed so that all information required for
navigation or meaning is not dependent on the ability to identify
- Changes in the natural language (e.g., English to French) of a
document's text and any text equivalents shall be clearly identified.
- Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring
an associated style sheet.
- Web pages shall update equivalents for dynamic content whenever the
dynamic content changes.
- Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a
server-side image map.
- Client-side image maps shall be used whenever possible in place
of server-side image maps.
- Data tables shall provide identification of row and column headers.
- Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for
data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column
- Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame
identification and navigation.
- Pages shall be usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic
objects are turned off or are not supported, or shall provide
equivalent information on an alternative accessible page.
- Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be
synchronized with the presentation.
- An appropriate method shall be used to facilitate the easy tracking
of page content that provides users of assistive technology the
option to skip repetitive navigation links.
- Background colors will be avoided since color schemes can create
problems with legibility.
- Multiple browser testing will be conducted on the current versions of
Netscape Navigator, Internet Explorer and Lynx.
- The Official Web Site of the State of Rhode Island will provide a link
to a text version of the Web site.
- The Official Web Site of the State of Rhode Island will have descriptive,
intuitive text links and avoid the use of vague references such as "click," "here," "link," or "this."
In addition to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, the portal recognizes
Section 508 standards are more specific in specific areas:
- Flicker 1194.22 (j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to
flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.
1194.22 (o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip
repetitive navigation links.
Responses 1194.22 (p) When a timed response is required, a user
shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is
The following list has been compiled from various sources. The purpose of this list
is to provide a summary of the types of issues to consider when
creating and designing accessible HTML pages.
- Maintain a standard page layout throughout the site.
- Avoid the unnecessary use of icons, graphics and photographs.
- Use plain backgrounds and simple layouts to improve the readability of text.
- Provide a text-only index of your site.
- Include textual as well as graphical navigation aids.
- Do not abbreviate dates; e.g., use December 1, 1996 rather than 12/1/96.
- Test your web pages with a variety of web browsers; including graphical
browsers with the images turned off and a text based browser, if possible.
- Avoid / Limit the use of HTML tags or extensions which are supported by only onebrowser.
- Check images at different resolutions and color depths.
- Hyperlinks to downloadable files should include a text description that includes the file size and file type.
- Consider the development of a text-only version of the document or site to
facilitate access not only by people with visual impairments, but
users of non-graphical browsers or slow Internet connections.
- End all sentences, headers, list items, etc. with a period or other suitable
- Avoid/Limit using side by side presentation of text, e.g., columns and tables;
Consider using preformatted text which is available in all versions
of HTML and can be displayed with all type of browsers.
- Provide alternate versions of forms; Alternatives might include a simple
list or paragraph of what is needed to submit a form entry and then
provide a link to a mailto: feature or simply an appropriate e-mail
address to send the text.
- Minimize the number of hyperlinks that appear in a single line of text - one
hyperlink is best; consider using vertical lists for links wherever possible.
- Avoid/Limit=the use of bitmap images of text.
- Consider beginning lists with a descriptive identifier and the number of
items so the users will have an idea of what the list represents and
the total length of the list. Using numbers instead of bullets will
also help the user to remember items that interest them.
meaningful and descriptive text for hyperlinks, don't use short
hand, e.g. "click here". (Screen readers can search
specifically for linked text, "click here" provides no
indication of where the link will take them.)If documents are
provided in a specialized format (e.g. PDF, etc.) provide the
equivalent text in ASCII or HTML format.
Graphics and Images
- Keep the number of colors in your images to a minimum.
- Minimize the file size and number of images you display on any one page.
- Design your background image at the lowest color depth and resolution you can.
- Ensure that text can always be clearly read at any location against the
- Avoid/Limit using image maps; provide an alternate text-based method of
selecting options when image maps are used, e.g., separate HTML page
or menu bar.
- Use the [ALT] option within image tags to provide associated text for all
images, pictures and graphical bullets.
- Consider using described images: provide a hyperlink (the capital letter D is
being used at various sites) to a short paragraph describing the
- If image files are used for graphical bullets in place of standard HTML, it
is best to use a bullet character like an asterisk " * "
or "o" in the ALT = text field of the <IMG> tag
(rather than describing the bullet as: "This is a small purple
- Provide text transcriptions of all video clips.
- If possible include captions or text tracts with a description or sounds of the movie.
descriptive passages about speakers and events being shown through
- Give a written description of any critical information that is contained
in audio files contained on your Web site.
- If you link to an audio file, inform the user of the audio file format and file
size in kilobytes.
The following are provided as references for Universal Web site
- The Section 508 Web Site is an excellent source for general
information, standards, evaluation, events, and resources surrounding
Section 508, which will impact electronic and information technology
on the Web.
- Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended for the Workforce
Investment Act of 1998. The content of this document directly
relates to the Federal government and any public or private industry
contracting with the Federal government.
Attorney Generals Memorandum
- Enforcing ADA compliance - The Department of Justice handles complaints and
Title II, Section 508 speaks directly to state, local governments and all
other public entities. This highlights page provides a concise
overview, abbreviated information on specific chapters that must
comply with ADA standards and information about the complaint and
Designing Accessible HTML Pages
Alternative Access Systems
is a tool that allows blind and visually impaired users to read any
document in Adobe PDF format. The tool converts PDF documents into
simple HTML or ASCII text which can then be read by a number of
common screen reading programs that synthesize the HTML as audible
to ICADD (International Committee for Accesible Document Design)
Transformation Service sponsored by the University of California at
- University of Toronto's Adaptive
Technology Resource Centre provides several product listings such as Screen Reader, Voice
Recognition System, Alternative Keyboard System, Screen
Magnification, and Refreshable Braille Display.